Effects of a Truck levy: Literature Analysis and a Conceptual Framework

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The Knowledge Institute for Mobility Policy (KiM) developed a conceptual framework for further analyzes of a kilometer charge for trucks (truck charge) in the Netherlands. The frame of thought shows at a glance how possible the effects of a truck levy affect the various parts of the freight transport system. It shows effects on transport and traffic, the living environment and the economy. KiM developed this framework for the Ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management (IenW) as a basis for further analyzes of a truck levy.

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Micro-behavior and Macro-effects Through the Truck Levy

KiM supports the conceptual framework and the strength of the relationships within it, based on a literature study and a knowledge session with experts. The frame of thought links all possible effects at the micro-level and the macro level and their coherence as a result of a truck levy, to:

  • Transport and traffic: effects on the reduction of truck kilometers, journeys and tons of freight transported by road, on lost vehicle hours, routes, logistics efficiency, distribution structure (from longer to shorter distances), choice of route, the composition of the fleet (including delivery vans), modal shift and logistics flows;
  • Environment and surroundings: effects on emissions of CO2, particulate matter and nitrogen oxides and on noise, road safety, and road wear;
    Economy: effects on competitive position and on the costs and revenues of truck levies and prosperity.

Overview of Behavioral Responses in Various Markets

The conceptual framework distinguishes different markets (or layers) where supply and demand come together: the traffic market, transport market, logistics market, and goods market. It describes the behavioral responses from the actors active in the various markets: driver/transporter, shipper/logistics service provider, producer, and consumer.

Negotiations and agreements on price, quality, and delivery terms and quantity take place in these markets. The expectation is that costs will initially be passed on to customers. If that does not work, measures such as saving costs, more and/or better cooperation, or profit recovery will follow.

Combination of Existing Models and Literature

The framework also establishes a connection with the models used to determine the extent of the traffic and transport effects of a truck levy towing sunnyvale in the Netherlands (the National Model System (LMS) and the Basic Model for Freight Transport (BasGoed)). KiM describes which behavioral responses and effects can be determined with the relevant models and on which points there is no evidence from the literature.

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